THE FUTURE OF THE RENTAL MARKET IN PORTUGAL?
At the end of the last decade, it was unquestionable that Portugal provided Europe’s best investment destination. A growing economy, falling unemployment, a recovering real estate market, an investment surge in real estate driven primarily by the very successful Golden Visa program, a wave of (mostly) wealthy foreign retiree immigration driven by the Non Habitual Resident program, all this fuelled by 8 successive record-breaking years in the tourism industry, and no one could question the underlying fundamentals. Add to this the fact that Portugal had taken a long time to start to recover from the losses caused by the 2008-9 financial crisis, with property values falling as much as 40% in some locations.
The result of the perception of an improvement in the investment climate and the many measures intended to stimulate the economy was a jump in foreign investment. No sector felt the impact of this increase in capital inflows like the real estate market. From Chinese investors to French residents, the country’s real estate boomed and in 3 years, Lisbon had seen property growth of 60% and off-plan sales of modern, new-build product were back to full swing as if the recession had never happened.
Much of the growth was caused by investors who saw in Portugal not only an opportunity for capital appreciation from a low base, but also the possibility of rental yields. The country’s regulated, but very low tax, regime called the Alojamento Local, meant that early buyers who made their property available to the short-term rental market, were paying approximately 4% tax on gross revenues.
However, since then, we have observed the beginnings of dissatisfaction with over-tourism, the “expulsion” of local residents by (mostly) foreign owners, leading to a loss of character of entire neighbourhoods which were the drawcard attracting investors and visitors alike to the country’s authenticity.
Changes to the local lodging (Alojamento Local) legislation were implemented, including:
- An increase of the taxation basis from 15% to 35% of gross revenue, meaning an effective increase in the base rate of taxation on short-term rentals from less than 16% to around 20%. While still very competitive, the increase was significant
- Application of employer’s social security for companies managing client properties
- Higher water rates in some municipalities for properties registered as local lodging
- The need to present detailed calculations and proof of expenses, effectively eliminating the simplified regime for owners with annual rental values of around €27,000
In 2018, with a number of complaints about the effects of excessive tourism and short-term let properties, and the adoption of stricter rules in locations as diverse as Paris, Barcelona, New Zealand, Thailand, and Croatia, meant it was only a matter of time before the government started to change short-term rentals even further. New legislation, which has been approved by parliament and promulgated by the President, broadly forces the following changes:
- Municipalities will have the right to define zones with quotas on the number of short-term let properties, and owners will be limited to a maximum of 7 short-term rental properties within these zones
- Local lodging licences are personal and non-transferable in these areas and so if the property is sold, the new owner may not be able to get the licence renewed if the quota for that area has been reached. Buyers should be particularly careful about historical suburbs of Lisbon including Mouraria, Restelo and similar
- Condominiums will have the right to determine if and whether local lodging can be assigned to a property. Approval will require at least 50% of all voting members or owners
- Condominiums can charge a premium of up to 30% on condominium fees for those renting short-term
- Multi-risk and liability insurance is compulsory and must now also cover damage by clients to condominiums
- All client and tenant documentation must now be in three languages
Advantages for owners of long-term and winter lets in their properties
- Winter lets and Long-term rentals are an excellent way to make extra revenue in months which are usually slow and where properties are closed
- Taxes and legislation surrounding short-term rentals increased at the end of 2018; however long-term rentals remained unaffected by these changes.
- In 2020 and 2021, due to many factors relating to Covid-19 there was a decrease in tourism to Portugal which had a direct impact on short-term rentals. However, long term rentals remained on track, so owners protected their assets by negotiating good long-term rental values. As Covid-19 cases settle and the “new” normal comes into play, short term rentals will see an increase, but the search for long term rentals will continue to have a steady growth. This growth in part related to the pandemic which saw an increase in digital nomads and remote working.
- While the taxation is higher (28% versus around 14-20%, depending on VAT, for short lets), there are less expenses associated with long term lets such as utilities and cleaning as these are paid by the tenant and not included in the rental
- Security deposits are higher, churn is lower
- Commissions from third parties may be lower. In the case of Algarve Senior Living, commission is added to the negotiated base rental amount
- Owners have time to vet and select their guests. Checking references is possible
- Long-term tenants tend to be seniors or families. There is less damage and properties benefit from year-round occupation
- For owners with Alojamento Local (AL), 2018 was the year in which they could move their property from category B (Alojamento Local or local lodging) to category F (Arrendamento or long-term let) and suspend any capital gains which had been caused by the AL status. This is of particular relevance to any resident owners, such as Portuguese landlords, as capital gains tax (CGT) is much lower as a resident.
Advantages for tenants of a long-term rental
- Stability: knowing that they have a place to stay throughout the year, without the price fluctuations of the expensive summer months
- Visibility of expenses allowing for better planning
- Expenses are controlled directly by tenants, so if they wish to use more air conditioning or heating, they pay the bill, whereas if they decide to use blankets, they can save
- Contracts will allow those tenants who qualify, to apply for Portugal’s D7 residency visa or low-tax Non Habitual Resident status
Challenges for tenants of a long-term rentals
- Algarve Long Lets explains in detail the reason why tenants cannot expect to find quality property in good locations at discounted prices: in addition to the boom in demand, many tenants did not understand that long-term rentals are still taxed much higher than shorter rentals
- Many tenants looking for a long-term or annual rent, finding prices higher than they imagined, enter into a shorter contract in the slower winter months hoping they will then find something suitable when they are living locally. While this is sometimes the case, it often does not work for three reasons:
- The area selected is not necessarily the one in which they finally wish to settle. Their landlord is not knowledgeable of other areas nor has any interest in finding a solution which will mean losing a winter rental earlier than planned
- There may be a special requirement, such as pets, which makes the list of available inventory very short indeed. Companies like Algarve Long Lets have spent years compiling their portfolio of properties which often involves months of negotiation with owners. Even then inventory changes but due to a larger variety, finding an alternative is usually possible
- Every winter month which passes brings us closer to the expensive summer months which in turn sees a decrease in inventory and an increase in price. Often owners, who in November are nervous when they see an empty winter in front of them, become much more confident by March when they see the approaching summer months
- The largest challenge for tenants is to understand that often sacrificing one or more criteria in order to get a full-year rental contract, is better than sacrificing the length of time in the hope of then finding the perfect solution later. Without exception, the latter approach is always more expensive.